Archive for April, 2011


April 14, 2011 2 comments

G. Munkhbat

I have examined 112 complete skulls from Khambyn ovoo. 1 of them had evident gunshot damages 18 of which had only single inward and the others both inward and outward holes. 81,9% of in-ward holes are located in back of heads around spinal cord holes /which means that they were shot through base brain and cerebellum /here are located centers of cardiovascular systems causing direct lethal damages. In other cases into left temple and parietal bone are shot 6 times, into /rite temple 3 times, into forehead and palate 1 time. When I took measurements of comparatively straight shot holes they measured from 0,6×0, 6cm 3 1,0×1,1cm, which shows that, were hot by guns of different calibers, Guns seem to be comparatively powerful ones.

In 70,5 cases of all damages bullets pieced through the heads and in 34 cases on other sides had additional splitting which witness 4-5 splitting on holes. In most cases prevail hooting from back of heads directed swards forehead and compared to His of skulls from back to forehead, from down to upward, from write to left ides.

It is impossible to force a victim to stand and shoot him from back and from down to upward that way. Such damages must have caused by bringing victims on knees head down and shoot into occipital bone (Picture 23). It is a general summary of damages, and will research magazine.

In Mongolia there are many sites of such mass graves. Such graves are in the near of centers of Arkhangai, Bulgan, Dornod, Dornogobi, Zavkhan, Uburkhangai, Southgobi, Selenge,’Central, Khubsugul, Khentei, Uvs and Khovd provinces which according to administrative division of 1937-1939 were centers of provinces. It would be difficult to call them as graves. Because, as many witnesses say, many people were shot on open areas and perhaps for sparing of bullets they punched up heads of people with butts of rifle to death and often left them open without burying.

As my humble being found ouf there are following places of mass execution In Ulaanbaatar. Yellow rock, back side of Songino mountain, Khambyn ovoo, Right and Left valley of Tolgoit, Naran, White pass, Hyrhree; Read more…

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April 14, 2011 Leave a comment

Story. From that excavated by us slaughter site in total were revealed 340 skulls, 148 of which had bullet holes, some of 192 skulls had traces of punch-up breaks and others were whole skulls. Most of them are shot from back and some of bullets couldn’t pierce through forehead, which witnessed that they were shot closely holding guns to skull. But only one bullet head was found from skulls. Broken by punches skulls seemed to be bitten by butt of rifle. The number of counted thighbones reached 1150. If human being has two thighbones and divided into two become 575. Then can be said that there were buried 575 persons. But one our famous archeologist based on the assumption of numbers of previously excavated and taken away with construction lime bones said there were buried about 1000 people. Read more…

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April 14, 2011 Leave a comment

Story. On April 18 the staff of rescuer detachment of capital city under supervision of Buddhist artist G.Purevbat started to collect scat­tered in the precipice bones, exhumed and sort out graved ones and collect their belongings. There worked two tipper lorries and one excava­tor. There participated researcher physician of forensic medicine Munkhbat and Head of Mongolian Association of Political Victims Mr. Dashnamjil. The skulls of lamas were sorted out in skulls with bullet holes and without in two heaps. (Picture 6). The most interesting thing was that three skulls had no sutures. During loading lime from here many skulls were taken away. Therefore, it was impossible to establish how many people had been killed there. But it is said that from human bones thigh-bone preserves for longest. Therefore, to determine how many people were shot, there thigh­bones had to be sorted out in one separate heap (Picture 7). Other bones were loaded on tipper lorries (Picture 8). Most number of bones was revealed from a heap with two layers of grave. From there were found wooden cup of a lama, yellow silk shirt, Read more…

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April 14, 2011 Leave a comment

In January 2002 one company’s excavators while digging to take sand in southern ravine of Khambyn ovoo hill found lot of human bones. The information about it for the first time was spread through Website of “II Tovchoo” newspaper that Mongolian Association of Political Victims ad­dressed Central Intelligent Department requesting to determine who’s bones they were. Let’s quote here what an answer Central Intelligent De­partment gave to the letter of the Association.


May 10,2001 Number B/242           Ulaanbaatar city


In the near of the place called “Khambyn ovoo” on the terri­tory of Sukhbaatar district of capital city are revealed many human bones. This place is not included in the list of places where are said to have executed and buried political victims in 1930-s and 1940-s. In the archives of our organization there’s no material about this place.

Copy to the Office of the President of Mongolia



With it the event became left. But…

On the morning of April 9, 2003 suddenly ringed my telephone. When I took the receiver it was Buddhist artist Purevbat. He said:

-Mr. Akim, on Khambyn Ovoo the people who were taking con­struction lime excavated bones of many priests. I am going there. Could you come with me there and take pictures. I readily agreed…

Story. In a ravine southwestward from the place called Khambyn Ovoo where people of the capital city disposed their wastes was made excavation to take lime. The length of excavated area constituted 30m and the breadth 6m {picture 1). Depth of excavation on elevated side reached 4m. In mid of the ex­cavated area was left an upright standing place. When we de­scended into the excavation there lay about human bones in disorder {picture 2). In walls of excavated place peeped out bones in 8 places. One clearly could see that there people had been shot in mass and buried, really a terrible site to make hair to stand on ends. In its time the place had been a remote and hidden place unseen from any sides and difficult to hear gunshots. We measured the depths of some graves to find out that first, second and third graves were in 150cm, fourth one in 120cm and fifth in 130cm depth. The upright standing part contained three layers of graves from which upper layer with remains mainly of people with cloths was in 75cm depth, middle layer of bones in 150 and lowest layer of bones in 200cm depths {picture 3). Two large and small skulls laying bare both in their back had bullet holes, small one of which measured 80mm and larger one’s bullet hole M0mm(picture 4). Perhaps, they are shot by two differ­ent rifles. From fourth hole on northwest side was bared a faded piece of cloth, perhaps of a garment of high degree lama. When I came up to take its picture the faded piece of cloth by the wind turned with its not faded face upward. I got a strange impression as if the piece of cloth specially turned round with its un fade face up to let me take picture of it {picture 5). Many lamas came to make prayers and people from nearby communities began to gather, some of them surprised others of curiosity. They were happy to hear that those bones scattered in disorder would be removed and built a stupa. Some of them were telling that during over one year period of excavation for lime so many bones had been loaded and taken away. Children had been playing with bared skulls, too. Mr. Khorkhoi, resident in 6th ward of Songinokhairhan district told: “In 2002 I moved here and set up a fence. As I know children played with two skulls with bullet holes”. Another old woman said: “One skull children hanged on a pole and were playing”. At the bottom of the ravine one skull without sutures lay. Read more…

Categories: Books


April 13, 2011 1 comment

Hatagin Go.Akim /Doctor of Literature/


The wise saint Luvsandayan or priest Zava Damdin* in his historical book “The Melody of Conch-shell” wrote in rhymes:

Over the Mandala** of clearest and most beautiful White Body

Melody of happy Conch – shel spreads like smiling moon rays

With clear cool lights of Sarasvadi*** bestowing highest blessing

Make blossom White Lotus of great language.(1.13)

My humble being the phrase “White Lotus of great language” understood as scripts of great language. Perusing over sentences read and trying to explain what perused over is an ailment of my like scribblers. But without farther ado, snow white lotus is said to blossom under bright light of the moon. But the white lotus flower of great Mongolian language under ‘the fool moon” of which Mongolian period first was blossomed? Today a concept that “The Mongols as if suddenly in XIII century got letters based on a brief note from Yuan dynasty history that “Genghis asked: Do you know well letters of our state, Tatatunga**** showed his ability which pleased the khan, and therefore he immediately ordered to teach Uighur letters to all nobilities and high-ups” already became abandoned. But the concept that the emperor Genghis khan Mongolian letter respectfully made official letter of Great Mongolia became fixed. So when the Mongols really got their own script. It’s just the problem which racks brains of researchers of many generations. Even I not aware of my humbleness and low level of acquired knowledge still am trying to trace this important problem. Then what I have found. I’d like now to present it. Scholar Dr. B.Rinchen wrote “Based on the fact that a flourishing state doesn’t irrelevantly introduce scripts of extinguished or extinguishing nations, so would be more convincible to consider that Mongolian tribes during coexistence with Uighur state of the same location, similar to us origin, customs and language where flourished its civilization have learned the Uighur script and introduced in Mongolian language”. (2, 145). Really it seemed to me more convincible. After having read recently translated from Tibetan and published “The Melody of Conch-shell” by Zava Damdin I became more convinced. But to make the conviction more reliable let’s go a little through historic source materials. Persian historian Rashid-ed-din in his “Collection of Annals” wrote: \the Mongols and Turkeys wrote their true histories in Mongolian language by Mongolian letters and passed down from generation to generation. ” /3, 39/. But there will again arise a question, from when. Rashid-ad-din further on wrote: “Descendents of Alungoo***** spread in many tribes. Every tribe kept family trees because the Mongols record family trees of their ancestors, explain them to new born children, and therefore they all know their family lines very well. If not consider Arabians who keep their family line records, nobody else except the Mongols can be considered” \4,163\. Read more…

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